Sepsis biomarkers play an important role in identifying the presence, absence, or severity of sepsis and can differentiate bacterial from viral and fungal infection, and systemic sepsis from local infection. Other potential benefits of sepsis biomarkers include the role in differentiating Gram-positive from Gram-negative microorganisms as the cause of sepsis, guiding antibiotic therapy, prognosis, and predicting sepsis complications and the development of multi-organ failure. To date, the performance of more than 150 sepsis biomarkers have been evaluated and used in the diagnosis
and monitoring of sepsis (more for prognosis than diagnosis), which includes acute phase protein markers, chemokine/cytokine markers, receptor markers, markers related to vasodilation and vascular endothelial damage, and coagulation markers.Routine laboratory tests are not very helpful because most critically ill patients develop some degree of inflammatory response, whether or not patients have sepsis, hence there is no single gold standard test for the diagnosis and monitoring of sepsis and there is a continuous search for better biomarkers.
Current and novel biochemical markers for detection and monitoring of sepsis